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KOMODO NATIONAL PARK

Komodo  National Park was estabilish in march 6”1980 and designed as aman Biosphere in 1986 and as a world heritage Site in 1991 by UNESCO . Administratively , the park is in komodo sub district, West manggarai Regency , in east Nusa Tenggara province .  Komodo National Park covers about 173.300 ha.  Consist of 40.728 ha ,terrestrial part and 132.572 ha of marine mart. Tree largest island are Komodo , (33,937ha ) , Rinca (19.627ha). and Padar (2017 ha )Most of it topography is mountainous  with the higest peak are Ara (808 m )and Satalibo 726m )The wether is dry with average annually rainfall about 500 – 1000 mm.  Rainy season occurs  during January to april  with wave strong enough that  could  make  boat travel in danger .

Compare to the other region in Indonesia , Komodo national Pak  supports limited numbers of wild plant  and animal species .  Only the species which could do the adaptation to dry  environment that will survive .  In this Park has about 244 species of terrestrial  plants , 16 species of mammals,111 species of birds, 34 species of reptiles, and 3 species of amphibians.

There are three villages in the park are . Komodo village in komodo island , Pasir Panjang village in Rinca and Kerora in Rinca island , and Papagarang village in Papagarang island .
Komodo National park a wealth of interesting flora and fauna inhabit both the land and waters of the park.komodo national park has captured worldwide atention ,not only as the home of the worlds largest lisards,the komodo dragon  but also for encredible marine ,difersity found in the rich,curent swept ,reefs and open water surounding the park .Komodo national park is located between  the island of sumbawa and flores in the lesser sunda islands of indonesi ,the parks belongs in the komodo sub-district of manggarai district in the province of east nusa tenggara .thise komodo national park a unesco world heritage site ,encompasses ,komodo rinca ,several neighbouring islands and their incredible rich marine ecosystem .

Komodo dragon
The komodo dragon is actually a monitor  lizard .all monitors have some things in common .the head is tapered ,the ear openings are visible ,the neck is long and slender the eyes have eyeleds and round pupils ,and jaws are powerful ,but the dragon also have massive bodies ,powerful legs (each with five clawed toes )and long ,thick tails (witch fungtion as rudders underwater ,but can also be used for grasping or as a potent weapon,

The dragons legs allow them to sprint short distance ,lifting their tail as they run ,when threatened  ,they will take refuge in their normal resting places .they are dangerous if driven into corner and will then attack even a much larger opponent ,komodo dragon often rise up on their hind legs just before attacking and the tail can deliver well aimed blows that will cnock down a weaker adversary their best weapons are their sharp theet and denger sharp claws ,whitch can inflect severe wounds

Komodo dragon have  a very keen sense  of smell ,all monitors feed on others animals small one on insects ,large one on frogs and birds  .the larges lizards known locally as ora ,(the local name for the dragon ) it can reach over 3m lenght and weight up to 100kg .it hunts alone and feeds on animals as large as buffalo and deers both of which are found here .the males also try to eat the females eggs ,inevitably sparking a vicious battle of the sexes .ora can expend their jaws consederably,enabling them to swallow prey as large as a goat .to tackel even bigger prey ,they ambush their victim,bite it two weeks for a buffalo to die –before tucking in .mature dragons are also canibalistict ,and small ora live the first five years of their live up in the trees for safety ,to avoide from mature komodo dragon and wild pig ,or other wild life ,the baby dragon not moving to the ground level until they are  1 m lenght ,the baby dragon will moving to the ground when he’s drink water and back up to the trees for protect he’s life from another predators .

For all the females lay their eggs in holes –around lenght 1,5m and eggs long 90mm and weight around 200g ,the female lays 15-30 eggs at a time and often buries them in the hole ,she then protect her cache for three monts from predators in cluding male dragons .the incubation period is nine months
Komodo dragon live on komodo island and rinca island and a small numbers on west coast of flores island .Today the komodo or ora are a  protected species .

OTHER ANIMALS
Komodo National is also inhabitant of Timor deer (cevus timorensis ), wild buffalo (buballus bubalis ) , wild horses  (Equus sp ) and long tail macaque (macaca fascicularis) , Numerous kind of birds  such as Lesser sulphur  crested cockatoo (cactua sulphurea parvula), king fisher (Halcyon chloris), FriarBird (Philemon buceroides neglectus) and orange footed scrub fowl (megaphodius reinwardt).

Ont5he costal zone and marine area , yopu could see many species of sea birds such as giant heron ( Ardea sumatrana)reef heron (egrtta sacra sacra), bridled tem (stema anaethetus )nad bnaped tem (s sumatrana mathewsi ) . You can also found raptors such as brahmine kite (Haliastur Indus ) , fish hawk (pandion halietus ) , white bellied sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster ) , little falcon  (falcon longipennis hanieli)., and white goshawk  (accipiter novaehollandiaesylvestris).

One of the shore you could found the blue whale Balaenoptera musculus ) ,Minke whale (Balaenoptera acustorosttrata) and dolphins (steno bredanensis ), grampus griseus, Tursiops Attenuata, Peponocephala electra , and Delphinus delphis).Two species os sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) and Erectmochelys imbricate). Manta Rays (manta birostris) also live in the park

NATIONAL RESOURCES
Komodo dragon is the largest lizard in the world , which called “ORA” in local language. These Ora can found only in their natural habitat  in Komodo National Park , west and northern Floresisland . According to Komodo Nationmal Park survey 2003 , the population of komodo dragon on Komodo and Rinca islands are 297 dragons by direct meeting .

SAVANNA
About 70 % of terrestrial part of the park covers by savanna . Dominant plant species at savanna is grasses, such as sataria adhaerens, cloris barbata , and heteropogon contours . Lontar  (Borrasus flaberllifer) and bidara (zizypusjujuba) are trees species that commonly found at savanna. This park also covers by monsoon forest (open decidocus forest ), mountain forest , and mangrove forest .

CORAL REEFS
Coral reef of the park is one of the most beautiful coral reef of the world . A great numbers and variety of fishes (more than 1000 species ) , hard corals (260 species ) , sponges (70 species ) and others invertebrates could be found in many sites of this park . Species of corals in the park such as Acropora spp, Favites sp, Leptoria sp(brain coral ) , Fungia sp (mushroom coral ), sacrophyton sp and xenia sp  (soft coral ) . Beside the corals you can look for many species of gorgonians , sea fans, sea pens , anemones with clown fish , star fishes, Christmas tree worms , clams (tridacna sp ) crabs, nudibranchs,etc. The example of coral reef fishes are butterfly –fishes, angel fishes, lion fishes , scorpion fishes , damsel-fishes , groupers , moray , Napoleon wrasse (Chelinus Undulatus ) , etc. Komodo National park also become migration path of 5 species of whales, 10 species of dolpfins and dogong  also inhabit in the marine part of the park.

DIVING AND SNORKELING SITES
Here we would like to offer you to snorkeling and diving around komodo national park islands with briefly  information about snorkeling and dive site , to explore komodo national park ,we allways offer snorkeling and diving as  part of the itinerary ,most folks snorkeling around the small island and in pink beach(pantai merah ) as one of the best snorkeling spot in komodo island and diving area .of course diving is the thing here .given the condition up and down currents ,and cold temperatures and effort involved in diving these amazing dive site ,it is recomended for the inexperianced diver ,but if you have 50 or more dives stay calm and mind your dive guide ,you will have tremendeous experience

Komodo national park has some of the most exchilarating scuba diving in indonesi ,it is a region swept by strong current and cold upswellings ,the conditions that create rich plankton soup an asthonising diversity of marine life ,among the  several dozen dive site mapped in the  park are Batu bolong a split pinnacle with absolutly pristine coral .Crystal Rock ,with electric soft coral ,turtle,gray sharks and scooling of pelagics .The current are strong here and at Castel rock ,a tremendous sunrise dive site ,with a little luck ,you will dive with dolphins.then there is manta poin  a shallow drifft dive over white sand where masive manta rays school and clean themselves on the rock . if you have never seen the manta rays before ,dive here ,guaranteed .  every swimmers need to be cautions in their explorations.

MANGROVE FOREST
Mangrove forest covers only about 5 % throughout of the park ,  but mangrove extremely  important to hold out sea abrasion and sediment from land . They also provide shelter , feeding ground for long tailed macaque , bats , birds , and crabs . It is also  become feeding ground , spawning ,ground , and nursery  ground , for many kind of  fishes and other marine life .  This greenbelt  bounding land with sea water could be found at Loh  Sebita , Gili Lawa , and Loh Lawi  in Komodo island ., and at Loh Kima and Loh Buaya in Rinca island .  Two dominant species of mangrove in the park are Rhizophora  mucronata, that usually grows within the inter tidal zone , and  Lumnitzera  racemosa on the out side of inter tidal zone .

POINT OF INTEREST
Loh Liang   : Loh Liang that located on komodo island is main visitors gateway to komodo national park . It provides opportunity to vaiour activities fror visitors , such as  :

  • Komodo dragon and another wildlife watching such as timor deer , wild buffalo and  wild pig .
  • Bird watching such as Megapodes bird / orange footed scrub fowl  (megapodius reinwardt) lesser sulphur crested cockatoo, sparangled drongo , green imperial pigeon , friarbird (philemon buceroides negletus )
  • Hiking ( Loh Liang mt Ara – Mount Satalibo )
  • Soft trekking true Loh Liang – Sebita
  • Photo Hunting and video shooting
  • Diving , snorkeling at pink beach (pantai Merah ) Loh Bo , Loh Namo and Lasa Island .

Facilities that provided for visitors  :

  • 12 rooms with capacity for 20 peoples
  • Information centre
  • Cafetaria
  • Jetty
  • Shelter

Trails 
Loh Liang – Banu Nggulung   : 2 km
Loh Liang – mt Ara     8,5 km
Loh Liang  – Sebita    : 9 km
Loh Liang  – Poreng   7 km

LOH BUAYA
Loh Buaya is the second vistors gateway to komodo national park tha located on Rinca Island . Loh Buaya is one of the best site to see panorama that dominated by savanna and lontar palm , also for mangrove ecocystem.Mani wild animals could be seen here, such as komodo dragon , timor deer , water buffalo , wild horse, long tailed macaque , and many kind of birds. The visitors could charter the boat or the fast boat from labuhan Bajo  about 1- 2 hours .  On Rinca island also you can find the facilities for accommodations and cafeteria on the island , shelter , and the good trail of trekking on the island .

Loh Buaya provides opportunity to various activities for all the visitors , such as  :

  • . Komodo dragon and other wild life watching such as ; Timor deers, wild buffalo , wild horses, and wild pig .
  • Bird watching such as : Megapodes bird , Sparangled drongo, green imperial pigeon,  and friarbird. And other small sun birds on the island .
  • Hikking (Loh buaya – Wae Waso , Loh Buaya – Lengkong Gurung , Loh Buaya – Golo Kode , Loh Buaya Loh Kima ).
  • Fotho Hunting and video shooting .
  • Frit Bad watching on Kalong island ( in Front of Rinca village )
  • Batu Balok watching near the rinca village

ACCSESIBILITY
To get to Komodo National Park the visitors can use land vehicle , ship ,ferry , or plane . Terrestrial way from western could be reach from Denpasar(Bali), Mataram (lombok ), Bima (Sumbawa), Labuhan Bajo (west Flores ) .

 NOTICE AND SAFETY HINTS : 

  1. All visitors mus be report to the rangers at Labuhan Bajo , Loh Liang Komodo Island ,or Loh Buaya Rinca Island , .
  2. Entrance tickets could be take at Labuhan Bajo , Loh Liang or Loh Buaya .
  3. Take local advcice concerning the wether or tide .
  4. Always bring extra boiled water or mineral water for drinking .
  5. Always stay in the group,  never attempt to walk back alone .
  6. Use simple , confort, and practical cloth and shoes .
  7. Swimmers and divers are please cautionswith notorious current .
  8. Suggested to bring  mosquitoes repellent.
  9. Accomodation within the park does not need reservation .

For those who come to enjoy komodo national Park  could help  conserve the park’s natural resources by following these simple guidelines :

  • Pleas no smoking in the park
  • Pleas carry out all trash from the park
  • Please take no plant , animal or corals and other marine life .
  • Always use morning buoys where provide.
  • If you know any activities of destructive fishing , please notify your skipper , or guide and encourage them to report this illegal activity to the park authority.

Activities

Dragon spoting
You re likely do the standard stroll to wae waso a dry river bed as the place where the komodo dragons hunting their prey in submerged mud  such as ,buffaloes ,deers,wild pig ,and you will walking to the top of the hills to see the komodo dragon in open savana and see the view of palm trees in open area with breezing of fresh air, its about two hours track from Loh Buaya or ranger station area .the komodo dragon are now hunt their prey by them self in wild ,the organised feeding of goats to dragons is a thing of the past ,and dragon are now only fed here when the PHKA wants to do a head acount .Wae waso still occasionaly at tracts dragons ,but you’re more likely to find them on your way here and back ,when you find the komodo dragon on the way along your tracking ,you will keep a safe distance and move slowly and calmly ,will huntig  by your camera and video handicam ,it is possible to spot dragons foraging for food and fresh water on some of the other walks ,but it’s no guaranteed

Get in
To get into komodo national park ,mostly the visitors use the local charter boat from labuan bajo ,in komodo park ,there is no transportation like car or becykle to see komodo dragon in their natural habitat ,but you are will walking and treking to see komodo dragon in the wild .

See
when you are on komodo park island you will have a chance to see the wild animals are living on the driest land such as ,komodo ,wild pig ,buffaloes ,monkey,birds,horses,and others animals wild life ,and seen the nice cluster of the small islands around the park between komodo island and rinca island, so the both of the island that mention is the bigest island on komodo national park ,and you will spend your time to see the marine ecosystem ,with nice coral reefs and relex on the white sandybeach .

Do
Along you enjoi visiting komodo national park ,allot of things you can do like ,trecking see komodo dragon ,fishing ,swimming or snorkeling ,relex on the beach , diving ,and shoping some of local sovenir from komodo village and see hand made carved komodo dragon by the local people from komodo village .

Buy
On komodo national park island the local people from komodo village they sale the local prodact to every visitors who came in komodo park isand ,like ,komodo dragon carved ,pearls necklace, bracelet,komodo t-shirt ,and traditional sarong ikat ,or buy some poscard and sticker.all those you can buy on komodo island for your sovenir when you are back to your country as the memorial when you are visit komodo national park island .

Drink
As along your tour around komodo park we provide mineral water as along your trecking on komodo island ,or you can buy extra water or sofft drink ,snacks  in the park office if its not enough when you have done the trecking

Sleep /lodging
Mostly the visitors stay overnight on the boat ,when they are do the tour around komodo park  for coupel of days ,and actualy there are home stay on komodo island where the customer spend a night for a next day to do adventure treck in early morning to loh sabita or bird watching ,because normaly the ranger office open at seven (07:00 am ) we have to early confirmation when you are arrive at komodo island for adventure treck .